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THE GENERALS

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     In this page you will learn a little about the Officers who had an impact on the 35th Battalion when they were pressed into regular service: Men such as Gen. Robert E. Lee; Gen. Eppa Hunton (then a Lt. Col.); Gen. Thomas T. Munford (then a Lt. Col.); Gen. William E. (Grumble) Jones; Gen. Richard S. Ewell; Gen. Jubal A. Early; Gen. Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson; Gen. Wade Hampton; Gen. Thomas L. Rosser; Gen. James Dearing, and others.


THE GENERALS

ROBERT E. LEE RICHARD S. EWELL JUBAL A. EARLY WADE HAMPTON JEB STUART
JAMES DEARING THOMAS L. ROSSER THOMAS T. MUNFORD TURNER ASHBY



Robert Edward Lee
January 19, 1807 - October 12, 1870

      Robert Edward Lee was born at "Stratford" in Westmoreland County, Virginia on January 19, 1807. He was the fifth child of Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee and Ann Hill (Carter) Lee. He received his early education in the Alexandria schools and in 1825 received his appointment to West Point in which he graduated second in his class with out a single demerit in the four years he was enrolled. He was commissioned a brevet 2nd Lieutenant of engineers.

      For the next seventeen years he was stationed at Forts Pulaski, Monroe and Hamilton. He also held the position of superintending engineer for the St. Louis harbor. During this time, he was married to Mary Ann Randolph Custis on June 30, 1831. Mary Custis was the only child of George Washington Parke Custis, a grandson of Martha Washington by her first marriage. The Custis estate of "Arlington became the home of the Lee's after the death of George Custis in 1857. From this marriage seven children were born, three boys and four girls. The three boys served in the Confederate Army like their father, George Washington Custis and William Henry Fitzhugh "Rooney" attained the grade of major general and Robert Edward Jr. attained the rank of captain.

      In 1846, he held the position of captain of engineers and was sent to San Antonio, Texas, as the assistant engineer to Gen. John E. Wool, and was soon joined to Gen. Winfield Scott in the Vera Cruz expedition. During the Mexican War his rank was augmented by three brevets for gallantry and distinguished conduct to that of colonel. In 1847, he returned to the United States and supervised the construction of Fort Carroll in Baltimore Harbor. He was appointed superintendent of Military Academy at West Point in 1852 for three years when he then transferred to the 2nd Cavalry as lieutenant colonel and sent to West Texas, serving there from 1857 to 1861. In 1859, he was on leave at "Arlington" at the time of John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry and was placed in command of the detachment of marines that stormed the engine-house capturing Brown and his men. In February 1861, the lower southern states seceded and Gen. Scott recalled Lee from Texas. He refused an offer made by Gen. Scott at the insistence of President Abraham Lincoln of the chief command of the U. S. forces.

       Robert E. Lee was strongly loyal to the Union and to the Constitution and held no sympathy for the institution of slavery which was shown by the freeing of slaves who came to him through the will of his father-inlaw. When it became known that his native state of Virginia would withdraw from the Union and he would be expected to aid in "suppressing insurrection," he resigned his commission in the United States Army on April 20, 1861. He proceeded immediately to Richmond, Va., where he was designated commander and chief of the military and naval forces of Virginia by Gov. Letcher. Upon the transfer of the Virginia troops to Confederate service, he was appointed and confirmed brigadier general in the Regular Confederate States Army on May 14, 1861 to rank from June 14, 1861.

      Gen. Lee discharged the duties of arming and equipping the Virginia contingents. He was first assigned the task to resist the Federal armies columns that were advancing through the trans-Allegheny counties of Virginia. This was unsuccessful due to the loyalties of the area to the Union cause.

He returned to Richmond in March of 1862, after examining the defenses of the South Atlantic Seaboard, to act as the military advisor to President Jefferson Davis. He devised the plan, that Stonewall Jackson would execute successfully, to prevent reinforcements from reaching Gen. McClellan at Richmond.

      The wounding of Gen. Joseph E. Johnston at the battle of Seven Pines on May 31, 1862 allowed Gen. Lee to step into the position of command of the Army of Northern Virginia until the end of the war. Gen. Lee foiled McClellan's threat against Richmond at the battle of Seven Days battles, June 26- July 2, 1861. At Second Manassas, August 29th-30th, he defeated General Pope, but was checked by Gen. McClellan in his Northern campaign into Maryland. Gen. Lee repulsed Gen. Burnside at Fredericksburg on December 13, 1862 and Gen. Hooker at Chancellorsville on May 2nd - 4th of 1863. Since the South had to fight against a large superiority in man-power and materials, Confederate successes could not achieve positive results.

      After the repulse at Gettysburg, Pa., Gen. Lee was forced to turn more to defensive tactics, both strategically and tactically with the hope that the European powers would recognize the Confederacy. Gen. Lee fought mostly what would be considered a rear guard actions from the Wilderness to Petersburg. Casualties of almost three to one in his favor and the advantage of fighting behind entrenched lines, however, could not compensate for the undiminishing resources and determination of the Federal army. On February 1st, the General Assembly of Virginia confirmed Gen. Lee as Commander and Chief of the Confederate Army. With the diminishing resources of his own army, he was forced to stretch his lines too thinly to oppose the army of Gen. Grant, causing the Federal breakthrough at Petersburg on April 2, 1865. Seven days later, Gen. Lee surrendered the remnant of the Army of Northern Virginia.

       Gen. Lee returned to Richmond as a paroled prisoner of war and devoted the remainder of his life in setting an example of conduct for the thousands of ex-confederate soldiers. He assumed the presidency of Washington College at Lexington, Virginia ( which was eventually renamed Washington and Lee University). Gen. Lee died at Lexington, Virginia October 12th, 1870 is buried there.


      In September of 1862, Gen. Stuart and Capt. Elijah White engaged in a serious dispute, ending with orders for Capt. White and his battalion to return to Virginia. Gen. Lee intervened in the dispute and Capt. White is ordered to report only to him and not to Gen. Stuart during the campaign.

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Richard Stoddart Ewell
February 8, 1817 - January 25, 1872

      Richard Stoddart Ewell was born in Georgetown, D. C. on February 8, 1817. In 1836 he entered the Military Academy at West Point and graduated June 30, 1840, receiving an appointment as brevet second lieutenant of cavalry on July 1st. He was further promoted to first lieutenant on September 10, 1845 and with that rank went into the Mexican War, serving in Colonel Mason's dragoons. He was next promoted to captain for gallant and meritorious service at the battles of Contreras and Cherbusco.

      When Virginia seceded, Captain Ewell resigned his commission in the army on May 7, 1861. He was commissioned a brigadier general in the Provisional Army on June 17, 1861; major general on January 24, 1862; and lieutenant general, succeeding Stonewall Jackson in command of the 2nd Corps, on May 23, 1863.

      He fought at First Manassas, in the Valley campaign of 1862, the seven days, and second manassas, where he lost a leg at the battle of Groveton. He commanded the 2nd Corps from Gettysburg to Spotsylvania. During this action, General Ewell had his horse shot from under him and received a severe fall. He tried the next day to again mount the saddle, but his health compelled his temporary retirement from active field duty and relinquished his command to General Early and retired. He slowly recovered and in July 1864, assumed the command of the Dept. of Henrico, and finally the immediate defenses of Richmond. On April 6, 1865, while retreating with General Lee's Army, he was captured at Burkeville and sent to Fort Warren.

      After his release from Fort Warren in August, General Ewell resided on a farm near Spring Hill, Tennessee, where he died on January 25, 1872. He is buried in the Old City Cemetery, Nashville, Tennessee.


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Jubal Anderson Early
November 3, 1816 - March 2, 1894

      Jubal Anderson Early was born in Franklin County, Virginia on November 3, 1816. He graduated from West Point in 1837. After service against the Seminoles, he resigned the following year to study law and later began a practice in Rocky Mount, Virginia, He was a member of the house of delegates, commonwealth's attorney, and in the Mexican War was a major of Virginia Volunteers.

      He voted against secession in the Virginia convention in April 1861, but promptly entered the Confederate Army as a colonel of the 24th Virginia Infantry, which he led at the battle of First Manassas.

      He was promoted brigadier general to rank from July 21, 1861. He took part in all engagements of the Army of Northern Virginia from 1862 to 1864. He was promoted to major general from January 17, 1863. He was prominent at Salem Church and in the Gettysburg Campaign. At the Wilderness he commanded A. P. Hill's corps for a time and was promoted to lieutenant general from May 31, 1864.

      After the temporary retirement of General Ewell from field duty, Gen. Early was given command of the 2nd Corps. After Cold Harbor, Gen. Lee ordered him to the Shenandoah Valley to battle against Gen. Hunter. He drove Gen. hunter west into the mountains, defeated Gen. Wallace at Monocacy in Maryland and was in front of Washington on July 11, 1864. The arrival of the 6th Corps of the Army of the Potomac from Petersburg caused him to retreat back into Virginia. His cavalry conducted wide-ranging and destructive raids and burned the town of Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. In September, He was defeated at Winchester and Fisher's Hill. A last surprise attack on Gen. Sheridan at Cedar Creek was repelled, and the remnant of his command was dispersed by General Custer at Waynesboro, Virginia in March 1865.

      After the surrender, he went to Mexico and later returned to Lynchburg to resume his law practice. He became the first president of the Southern Historical Society and wrote his memoirs. The later years of his life were mainly occupied in supervising the drawings of the Louisiana Lottery and a caustic effort to destroy the military reputation of General Longstreet.

      He died and was buried at Lynchburg on March 2, 1894.


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Wade Hampton
March 28, 1818 - April 11, 1902

      Wade Hampton was born in Charlestown South Carolina on March 28, 1818. He was the son of Colonel Wade Hampton, who distinguished himself in the war of 1812 and was aid-de-camp to General Andrew Jackson at the battle of New Orleans. He was also the grandson of General Wade Hampton of the American Revolution. He graduated from South Carolina College in 1836.

      While a young man, he married the youngest daughter of General Francis Preston, of Virginia. By this marriage he had three children, two of them becoming officers in the Confederate Army. After the death of his first wife, he married the daughter of Gov. McDuffie, of South Carolina. He served in both branches of the South Carolina Legislature, from 1862 - 1861, with distinction and argued against the opening of the African slave trade.

      In 1861, he was considered one of the largest landowners in the South. When the hostilities commenced, he immediately a legion of six companies of infantry, known as the Hampton Legion, with himself as their colonel. He equipped his legion using his own money. His legion arrived in Virginia in time to participate in the battle of First manassas on July 21, 1861, where he was wounded in the head. He commanded an infantry brigade in the Peninsular campaign in which he was wounded in the foot. He was appointed brigadier general on May 23, 1862.

      In July he assumed command of a brigade of Gen. J. E. B. Stuart's Cavalry of the Army of Northern Virginia. He was with Gen. Stuart on his expedition into Maryland and after the retreat from Sharpsburg, showed up in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania and occupied the town. While in possession of the town, he was appointed military governor. At the battle of Gettysburg, General Hampton was wounded three times, once in the hip from shrapnel, and two severe sabre cuts in the head. This compelled him to retire for awhile from his command to recuperate. Gen. Hampton was promoted to major general to rank from August 3, 1863. After the death of Gen. Stuart at Yellow Tavern, he succeeded him to the command of Cavalry Corps.

      During the latter part of May and the beginning of June, 1864, he was constantly engaged in pressing the enemy cavalry. On the June 12, 1864, Gen. Hampton and Gen. Fitzhugh Lee encountered generals Sheridan, Custer, Torbert, and Gregg at Trevillian Station; and on the 20th successfully attacked the Federals stationed at White-House. On the 25th, the federal cavalry advanced to Nance's Shop and entrenched there. Gen. Hampton quickly followed and drove them away, pursuing them until 9 P. M. that night, until they were 2 miles from Charles City Court-House. On the 26th of August, he attacked a body of cavalry four miles beyond Ream's Station and routed them. It was at this time he was made Commander-and-Chief of all cavalry in the Army of Northern Virginia.

      In the middle of September, in the Federal Camp, arrived 2,486 head of cattle. They were put to graze around Sycamore Church, not far from the James River. Gen. hampton along with W. F. H. Lee's division, Gen. Rosser's and Gen. Dearing's Brigades, Lt. Col. Elijah White's battalion ( the "Comanches"), Graham's and McGregor's batteries, started out to capture them. Taking a wide route around the Federals, they suddenly came upon the surprised forces of the 1st District of Columbia, stationed on their right, a fight ensued and the enemy was pushed back and the position was carried. the cattle where safely driven back to the Confederate line, after another fight with Gen. Gregg's Cavalry. In January 1865 he was ordered with a part of his force to Gen. J. E. Johnston in the Carolinas, where he remained until the surrender to Sherman. Gen. Hampton was promoted to lieutenant general on February 14, 1865

      After the war he retired to his home in Columbia, South Carolina. In October, 1865 he was nominated at Charleston for governor of South Carolina, but not desiring the position, he was not elected. In 1876 he was elected governor over a carpetbagger named D. H. Chamberlain, then in office, and re-elected in 1878. He served as a United States Senator from 1879 - 1891. He was then a commissioner of Pacific Railways from 1893 - 1899.

      Gen. hampton died at Columbia, South Carolina on April 11, 1902 and was buried there. He was one of three civilians without any formal military training to attain the rank of lieutenant general in the Confederate Army, the others being Gen. Richard Taylor and Gen. nathan Bedford Forrest.


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James Ewell Brown "Jeb" Stuart
February 6, 1833 - May 12, 1864

      James Ewell Brown Stuart, forever known as "Jeb" was born in Patrick County, Virginia on February 6, 1833. His father was Archibald Stuart, a member of Congress. His father gave him a good academic education an got him an appointment to the military Academy of West Point in 1850. His class mates at this time were A. P. Hill, Henry Heth, G. H. Stewart, N. G. Evans, J. H. Holmes, R. H. Robertson, S. M. Barton, and T. S. Rhett. He graduated in June 30, 1854, receiving his appointment as brevet second lieutenant of the regiment of mounted rifles. On March 3, 1855 he transferred at full rank to the First Regular Cavalry. In July of the same year, he was made the regimental quartermaster. In December 1856, he received his appointment as first lieutenant. his regiment was ordered to New Mexico to fight the indians. On July 29, 1857, with Col. Sumner as his commander, he encountered a force of three hundred Cheyenne Indians They were strongly posted on the Solomon fork of the Kansas River and after a fierce fight were defeated and put to flight in great confusion. Lt. Stuart was wounded in this action. Two years later, he was acting as aid to Col. Robert E. Lee, in the John Brown affair in Harpers Ferry.

      He reigned his commission on May 14, 1861 and offered his services to Virginia. He raised a company of cavalry. He entered Confederate service as colonel of the 1st Virginia Cavalry assigned to Gen. J. E. Johnston. He was first stationed at Harper's Ferry, in command of the cavalry attached to Gen. Jackson's Army. While in the upper Potomac, he was always on alert, watching the enemy, giving information to the general. From Point of Rocks to Williamsport, he was constantly back and forth on duty. On July 15, 1861, he reported the advance of Gen. Patterson. He constantly watched this general and in one instance surprised a whole company, who were so startled by his sudden command to throw down their weapons that they immediately submitted.

      When Gen. Johnston marched to unite with Gen. Beauregard at Manassas, Col. Stuart, with his cavalry covered the movements of the enemy efficiently by posting pickets from Smithfield along Summit Point an Rippon to the Shenandoah, he completely concealed the change of base, and enabled the army to move without molestation. In the battle of First manassas, Gen. Stuart's cavalry of about 300 men, guarded the level ground extending along the stream from around Mitchell's Ford to the Stone Bridges. He made a dashing charge upon a regiment of Fire Zouaves, scattering them and riding them down against all opposition. As the rout of the Federals ensued Col. Stuart and his men, dashed after the terror-stricken enemy. Over the Stone bridge, across the fords, up the road, in and out of the woods, cutting down the enemy until they arrived near Centreville. the rout now over, prisoners taken, the victory had been won. Col. Stuart occupied Fairfax Court-house the next day

      On September11, 1861, Col. Stuart successfully attacked and routed a party of Federals at Lewisville, about six or seven miles from Washington. On September 24, 1861 he was promoted to brigadier general. Before the Seven Days battle, Gen. Lee ordered him to do a reconnaissance on McClellan's right flank. The ever adventurous and daring horseman that he was gathered his information by riding completely around McClellan's army doing damage and destruction along the way. This action took sixty hours to complete. For this achievement he promoted to the rank of major general on July 25, 1862.

      In a raid on Gen. Pope's communications, he got in the enemy's rear and rushed upon Gen. Pope's quarters. The general got away, but with the loss of his coat and hat. He seized a large quantity of stores with a lot of clothing, including new full dressed uniforms for Gen. Pope and his staff; a quantity of private baggage, wines, liquors, etc. and obtained documents giving strength and disposition of the Union forces.

      At Bristoe Station he attacked a train of the enemy and then moved upon Manassas, capturing a battery of the new York artillery and destroying a large quantity of supplies that were on hand there. He hurried on to meet and assist Gen. Longstreet if needed. He heard the sounds of battle around Stone Bridge, on August 29, 1862, he hastily returned and shared in the battle. As the smoke was clearing at Second Manassas Gen. Stuart was heading toward Maryland. In the Maryland campaign he checked the enemy at Crampton's Gap until Gen. Lee was ready to meet Gen. McClellan's army. Gen. Stuart sent word to Gen. Lee that his one of his orders of operations had been found and was now in Gen. McClellan's hands and that an enormous Federal force was camped at Middletown, four miles from Turner's Gap. At Sharpsburg, he was positioned on a knoll on the farm of Jacob Nicodemus and had assembled eight cannon from his own horse artillery and a dozen of Gen. Jackson's guns. Their aim was so accurate that the second shell burst into the ranks of the 6th Wisconsin, killing two and wounding eleven. This action opened an artillery duel of great magnitude as it was joined by the four batteries of Col. Stephen D. Lee's artillery battalion positioned across the pike from the Dunker Church, and the responding nine batteries of Gen. Joseph Hooker positioned on a ridge on Joseph Poffenberger's farm. Gen. Stuart seemed to be everywhere on the battlefield and in the cornfield. On the retreat, a few of Gen. Stuart's cavalry on the morning of September 12, 1862, at Frederick ready to depart. a few squadrons of Federal Cavalry rode into town, commanded by a dutch major looking for Gen. Stuart. They received information and took off in pursuit, but had barely got to the main street, when a company of Confederate cavalry met them and charged. the dutch major's command was routed and he was himself captured.

      On October 10, 1862, Gen. Stuart started off on another raid with a force of about 1300 troopers, commanded by Generals Hampton, W. H. F. Lee and Jones, showed up in Chambersburg, Pennsylvania. They took possession of the town, captured and destroy property, remounted on new and fresh horses. they then passed around the entire Federal Army and returned to their own camp in Virginia.

      At the battle of Fredericksburg, Gen. Stuart directed the batteries on Gen. Jackson right. His cavalry brought havoc to enemy. After Fredericksburg, Gen. Stuart was off again dashing about. He started around the Federal army to gather information alarming the area between Manassas and Washington. Forces were sent out to stop him, but were unable to catch him. An action at Dumfries left him with the loss of Capt. John W. Bullock of the fifth Cavalry. After the action at Dumfries, Gen. Stuart moved to the Occoquan, but found news of his approach and all the fords guarded. He chose to cross at the guarded selectmen's Ford. The cavalry charged across the stream and attacked the enemy who had dismounted and drawn up in line of battle. They rode into the face of the enemy under heavy fire, breaking and then pursuing them. Gen. Stuart's cavalry charged into the enemy's camp capturing sutler wagons.

      In april, 1863, General Stuart was in command of the forces, respectively under Gen. Fitzhugh Lee and Gen. W. H. F. Lee, that successfully resisted the enemy's attempt to establish themselves on the south side of the Rappahannock River. On the 29th of April, he reported on the movements of the enemy to Gen. Lee, that enabled him to prepare for the coming battle. he did all he could to impede the enemy. He hung on Gen. Hooker's flanks and attacked his right at the Wilderness Tavern, then marched by Todd's Tavern to Spotsylvania Court-House.

      He proceeded towards Ely's Ford in order to occupy that area in the enemy's rear when word reached him of the wounding of generals Jackson and A. P. Hill. He hurried back in order to take command and pushed forward the corps helping in the defeat of the Federal army.

      After Chancellorsville, Gen. Stuart concentrated his forces at Culpeper on June 8th and the next day moved on to Fleetwood Hill and was attacked by the enemy's cavalry and infantry. The battle commenced at 5 A. M. with Gen. Buford's force crossing over Beverly's Ford into the 6th Virginia of Gen. "Grumble" Jones threatening to seize the batteries at St. James Church. With Gen. Buford's force pouring across the ford, Gen. W. H. F. Lee rushed to the sound of battle and lined up on Gen. Jones's left as Gen. Hampton rushed forward to take position on Gen. Jones's right. Gen. Gregg crossed at Kelly's ford an hour later and headed for Stevensburg. This report reach Gen. Jones very late and was reported to Gen. Stuart, but by that time the Federals were at Brandy Station and soon approaching Fleetwood hill. Gen. Stuart ordered Gen. Jones brigade to meet the threat. The 12 Virginia Regiment supported by the 35th Battalion rushed toward Fleetwood Hill to intercept the 1st New Jersey that were racing toward the hill. The charge drove the enemy back but was forced back as other enemy regiments entered the battle. Other units of Gen. Jones and Gen. Hampton came upon the scene the help secure the area. Gen. Pleasonton finally pulled Gen. Gregg and Gen. Buford away and recrossed the Rappahannock.

      While enroute to Rector's Crossroads on June 23, 1863, he received orders from Gen. Lee that gave Gen. Stuart considerable latitude of operation that would be controversial for years. On June 24th, he ordered Gen. Jones and Gen. robertson to watch the south and east covering Gen. Lee's rear and follow him northward. Gen. Stuart with generals Fitzhugh Lee, Wade Hampton, and Colonel Chambliss ,who was commanding W. H. F. Lee's brigade at the time, marched eastward and then around the Federals that he came upon. Gen Stuart now headed north through Fairfax Court-House to Rowser's Ford along the Potomac. They rode north through Rockville and captured a commissary and forage train, which they kept, but slowed them down. On June 29th, they destroyed the bridge at Sykesville and tore up tracks of the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad at Hood's Mill. At Westminster, Md, they were attacked by the two companies of the 1st Delaware Cavalry and took the town in a matter of minutes. They entered Hanover, Pennsylvania on June 30th and then eastward to Jefferson and north to Dover on July 1st. Gen. Stuart arrived late on July 2nd at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, while the rest of the army had already been engaged in battle for to 2 days. Gen. Stuart continued to distinguish himself and his corps through the winter of 1863-64

      Gen. Stuart was mortally wounded on May 11, 1864 after intercepting Gen. Sheridan at Yellow Tavern. He died the following day in Richmond.


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JAMES DEARING
April 24, 1840 - April 23, 1865

      James Dearing was born in April 25th, 1840 at "Otterburne" in Campbell County, Virginia. He graduated from Hanover Academy and appointed to West Point in 1858. He resigned from the Military Academy on April 22, 1861 to take sides with his native state of Virginia.

      He entered the Confederate Army as a lieutenant of the Washington Artillery and served with them until after the battle of Gettysburg, where he commanded a battalion of guns with the rank of major. He was then transferred to the cavalry and promoted to the rank of colonel. On April 29th, 1864, he was commissioned brigadier general. His brigade distinguished itself during the Petersburg Campaign and until the evacuation of Richmond, serving in General W. H. F. Lee's division. In March, 1865, he took command of the "Laurel Brigade" in Major General Thomas L. Rosser's division. On the retreat to Appomattox on April 6, 1865, at High Bridge, General Dearing was mortally wounded while engaged in a pistol duel with Federal General Theodore Read, who was killed. General Dearing was taken to the Major Watson house with the rest of the wounded. He was visited by his commander, General Rosser, when Lt. Col. Elijah White of the 35th Battalion Virginia Cavalry walked in. Gen. dearing held Gen. Rosser's hand and pointed with the other to his brigadier's stars and whispered, " I want these to be put on his coat."

      Gen. Daring was taken to Lynchburg and lingered for sometime at the Ladies's Aid Hospital, dying there on April 23, 1865, two weeks after the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia. He was visited and paroled by his West point classmate, Brig. General Ranald S. Mackenzie, USA, then commanding Lynchburg. He was buried in Spring Hill Cemetery, Lynchburg.

      Gen. Dearing was the last Confederate general officer to die of wounds received in action.


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THOMAS LAFAYETTE ROSSER
October 15, 1836 - March 29, 1910

      Thomas Rosser was born in Campbell County, Virginia, the son of John and Martha M. Johnson Rosser. The family moved to the Sabine River country of Texas in 1849 and received his appointment to West Point from there in 1856. Thomas Rosser was in his graduating year, with two left until receiving his diploma , when Pesident Abraham Lincoln ordered him to the field. On April 22, 1861, he resigned and went to Montgomery, Alabama and was commissioned a first lieutenant in the Regular Confederate service, and assigned as an instructor to the Washington Artillery of New Orleans. He commannded the second company of the the washington Artillery at the Battle of Blackburn's Ford and First Manassas, in 1861

      He performed brilliantly in the Battles of Munson's Hill and Lewinsville and was promoted to the rank of captain after successfully shooting down one of Gen. McClellan's observation balloons in the Peninsula Campaign. He was wounded at the Battle of Mechanicsville and afterwards was promoted to colonel of the 5th Virginia Cavalry. He was wounded again at Kelly's Ford and continued to lead the 5th Virginia Cavalry until his promotion to brigadier on September 28, 1863.

      General Rosser at this time succeeded General Beverly Robertson in command of the Laurel Brigade on the Manassas plains. At First Manassas, he was ordered to take possession of McClean's Ford that was being held by a small force of Federal infantry. The Laurel Brigade suffered heavy casualties as they took position, but was soon notified by General Stuart to fall back. In order not to let the enemy have an idea of what he was about to do, he ordered a charge to the rear as night fell. The enemy was not fooled and pursued the dismounted Laurel Brigade until they were able to be checked.

      In October 1864, General Rosser assumed command of General Early's Cavalry Division in the Shenandoah Valley and was promoted to the rank of major general from November 1, 1864. At Woodstock and Cedar Creek, he was defeated by General Custer and returned to Petersburg in the spring of 1865. He fought at Five Forks and on the retreat to Appomattox. General Rosser refused to surrender and escaped with some of his forces. In May 1865 he was Hanover Court House to say farewell to his wife and baby, when the house was surrounded by Federal troops who immediately captured him and took him to Richmond as a prisoner. Accused of violating parole by the Federals who claimed General Rosser had been surrendered by General Lee at Appomattox. General Rosser denied this and with appeals to General Lee, was released from this charge. General Lee advised him to go to the Valley and disperse his troops. General Rosser took with him parole certificates to Staunton and gave these certificates to General Ball and the rear guard of the Army of Northern Virginia, paroling them and allowing them to return to their homes.

      After the war he found work as the chief engineer of the Northern Pacific and Canadian Pacific Railroads. He settled down in Charlottesville, Virginia and farmed the land. On June 10, 1898, he again donned the uniform of a United State soldier when President William McKinley appointed him a brigadier general of U. S. Volunteers. General Rosser was Honorably mustered out of the U. S. service on October 31, 1898. He died in Charlottesville, Virginia on March 29, 1910 and is buried in the Riverview Cemetery.


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THOMAS TAYLOR MUNFORD
March 28, 1831 - February 27, 1918

      Thomas Taylor Munford was born on March 28th, 1831, in Richmond, Virginia. His father, Col. George Wythe Munford, was for many years Secretary of the Commonwealth. His mother Lucy Singleton Taylor, was related to President Benjamin Harrison. He graduated from VMI in 1852. After graduation, he labored at general railroad work. Until the outbreak of the war his main labor was that of a planter.

      On May 8, 1861, Thomas Munford was commissioned a lieutenant colonel of the 30th Virginia Mounted Infantry, later to be called the 2nd Virginia Cavalry. At the First Battle of Mannassas, he guarded the Confederate right flank with four companies of the 30th Virginia Mounted Infantry. In the beginning of March 1862, he met up with Elijah V. White and his unorganized unit known as "White's Rebels". This band of men, not knowing the war would lead them away from their homes, never made arangements for supplies, a quartermaster, medical officer, or ordnance dept. Lt. Colonel Munford took this band of men in with open arms and shared his supplies and rations. On March 19, 1862, White's Rebel's now having sufficient numbers to become a company, were regularly organized under the superintendence of Lt. Colonel Munford. He allowed the 35th to ride along with him.

      He was promoted to full colonel of the 2nd Virginia Cavalry to date from April 25th, 1862. At the end of April, he was ordered back to his regiment, taking Capt. White and his rebels with him. After arriving in central Virginia, he found Capt. White and his company a home with General Richard S. Ewell.

      Col. Munford led two regiments cavalry brigade attached to Gen. Ewell's division in Gen. Jackson's 1862 Valley. At Second Mannassas his cavalry made a successful attack on Bristoe Station. He suffered two slight saber wounds at second Mannassas and a musket wound at Turkey Ridge. During the Maryland campaign at Sharpsburg, he temporarily commanded Gen. Robertson's brigade. At Brandy Station he led Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's brigade as senior colonel, but arrived on the battlefield as the Federals were in retreat.

      At the Battle of Aldie, his three regiments took one hundred and thirty-eight prisoners. He fought at Gettysburg and in the Wilderness campaign of 1864. On November 9,1864, he took over as the brigade commander of with the resignation of Gen. Williams Carter Wickham, who had been elected to the Second Regular Congress. In the Spring of 1865, he was assigned the command of Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry division, which he led till the end of the war. At Appomattox, he was able to move around the Federal left flank before the trap closed on the Confederate Army. Refusing to surrender, his force escaped to Lynchburg, where he disbanded the division.

      With the war now over, he engaged in the planting of cotton in Lynchburg, Virginia, and in Uniontown, Alabama. He was the vice president of the Lynchburg Iron, Steel and Mining Company. He served two terms as the president of the board of Visitors of VMI and secretary of the Southern Historical Society. Thomas Munford died on February 27, 1918, in Uniontown. He is buried in Spring hill Cemetery in Lynchburg.

      Thomas Munford is often mentioned as being a general. His promotion to brigadier general had been recommended by Gen. Robert E. Lee on march 23, 1865, to date from November, 1864, although there is no record of President Davis acting on the recommendation. Munford also noted in his post war application for pardon, that he never received a commission although it is surmised that he was promoted by Major General Fitzhugh Lee in the last days of the war.


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TURNER ASHBY
October 23, 1828 - June 6, 1862

      Turner Ashby was born at "Rose Bank" in Fauquier County, Virginia, on October 23, 1828. He was educated by his mother, private tutors, and at Major Ambler's school. Before the war he engaged in business and in the operation of a farm near his birthplace. At the time of John Brown's raid on Harpers Ferry, he gathered some mounted men and rode to Charlestown, only to find that John Brown was already in jail.

      When Virginia seceded the Union, he engaged in picketting the Potomac River. His command was later incorporated into the 7th Virginia Cavalry. He rose from Captain to colonel of the regiment within a few months. His regiment was mainly used in scouting and outpost duties until the spring of 1882.

      While in command of all of Gen. Jackson's cavalry, he performed brilliantly in the Shenandoah campaign of that year and was promoted to the rank of brigadier generalon May 23, 1862. In the pursuit of Gen. Banks to Harpers Ferry and the withdrawl of Gen. Jackson's army up the Valley, he was killed on June 6, 1862, while fighting a rear guard action a few mile from Harrisonburg. He is buried at the Stonewall Cemetary in Winchester, Virginia.

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